Default Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-11-2014, 06:07 PM   #1
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The thing that scares most people are 'Wiring Diagrams',
All those squiggly, densely packed lines in one place is intimidating,
And depending on if it's a DIAGRAM or SCHEMATIC the stuff you are seeing might not make any sense!

This should help clear some things up...


Diagrams are different than 'Schematics'.

FIRST THINGS FIRST!
If you have a diagram that is small, hard to read, like the diagrams in EVERY service manual you have ever seen,

SIMPLY SCAN THEM AND BLOW THEM UP!
If you scan at high resolution, they will print fine at a larger size.

SIMPLY SECTION THE DIAGRAM/SCHMATIC INTO SMALLER 'BITES'...
When you are doing front lights, there is no sense in having anything showing past the fire wall bulk head connector, so JUST the front end,
If you are working on tail lights, you don't need anything but the back end.
SMALL BITES BLOWN UP TO A READABLE SIZE.

COLORS!
MOST EVERY DIAGRAM HAS THE COLOR CODING OF THE WIRE, AND THE GAUGE SIZE. Simpy use your picture editor to trace in the correct color,
Or get yourself some colored pencils and trace the lines in the correct color.

This makes finding the ACTUAL wire in the harness you are looking for MUCH EASIER when you already know the color and size, or if you have a wire you want to identify, color and size will help you find it on the diagram/schematic!

-----------------------------------------

'DIAGRAMS' are basic drawings to show you where things hook up and where they go.



A 'SCHEMATIC' is a very precise, very technical representation of the electrical circuits, and may, or may not show you were the wiring ACTUALLY GOES, just what the electrical current is supposed to do and what electrical components are in the system...

The biggest issues people have with Schematics is, they ignore the hard parts of any electrical component, it simply doesn't exist if it's not carrying current.
Starters and Alternators look like coils of wire, connection points, ect., NOT starters and alternators...



A 'SCHEMATIC' makes absolutely NO SENSE to anyone that isn't trained in electrical engineering,
So you won't find 'Schematics' on my sites, I don't use them.

==================================================

Something I wrote a while back, don't know if it will help or I'll have to do it again from scratch...







============================================

The closest thing you will come to a 'Schematic' is a factory wiring diagram...
And they are confusing enough to drive any one crazy!

So lets start there...

*IF*...
You look the wiring diagram over really good, you will find 4 pieces of information for every electrical circuit in the vehicle....

1. Wire Ga. Size.
2. Factory Wire Number In The Harness.
3. Where It Originates From.
4. Where It Terminates.
5. Most Wiring Diagrams Give Color Coding information, but not all.



NOW! THIS LOOKS LIKE A BIG OLD MESS!... BUT IT'S NOT...



========================================

IF YOU SCAN IT, COLOR CODE IT WITH THE WIRING COLORS YOU CAN FIND LOCALLY,
IT WILL LOOK SOMETHING LIKE THIS...




Makes a LOT more sense this way, and once you scan it, you can even add color banding, from heat shrink or zip ties, and you can change the wire gauge sizes to what you use, ect.

==========================================

HERE IS THE SAME WIRING TRACE THROUGH THE FIRE WALL BULK HEAD CONNECTOR...



Color code the wires you are working with, trace them by number or color,
Then 'Clip' out the rest of what you ARE NOT working on that day...
This keeps the project 'Manageable' and you don't get overrun and feeling overwhelmed.





=========================================

FUNCTION DIAGRAMS.

The battery & light bulb diagrams above are 'Function Diagrams'...

Side marker function is a HUGE source of questions, and there is no way to explain it without a FUNCTION DIAGRAM, and somone on the other end that can understand that FUNCTION DIAGRAM...



FUNCTION DIAGRAMS will show power flow, work done, ect. instead of specific wiring colors.



THIS IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF A 'FUNCTION DIAGRAM'...



++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

'QUIRKS' IN JEEP WIRING DIAGRAMS.

This is the Brake Warning Lamp Wiring, and the Ignition Switch Connector is UNLABELED in the factory diagrams,
The connection between lines at the COMBINATION SWITCH are NOT shown as connecting...



Why they ran two wires is beyond me, the GM Ignition Switch 'Test Ground' could have been up in the harness behind the fire wall... (See Dash Cluster Diagram 2 Images Up, Corrected Version)

==================================================

84-86 WIRING DIAGRAMS...
84-86 Wiring Diagrams are CRAZY! You guys have your work cut out for you!




================================================

GROUNDS.



=================================================

WIRING DIAGRAM TEMPLATES.

These are links to basic wiring templates you can down load and practice on.

Open the links, Right Click 'Copy Image',
Then open with MS Paint on your computer.

In MS Paint, Left side tool bar,
Click the top right tool (a little box)
Then Right Click in the main window and click 'Paste',

Draw in your own wiring, components, ect.
I've left you some Breakers, Fuses, Relays, Ect. In the center of the template you can copy if you need them,
Clip out of you don't...

LINK: BASIC EXTERIOR LIGHTING TEMPLATE,

EXAMPLE: HEADLIGHTS ON RELAYS.

EXAMPLE: OFF ROAD LIGHTS ON RELAYS.



LINK: BASIC STARTING, CHARGING, IGNITION TEMPLATE,

EXAMPLE: IGNITION, CHARGING, STARTING CIRCUITS,

==========================================

SOME CJ SPECIFIC WIRING DIAGRAMS YOU MIGHT NEED, AND CAN DOWN LOAD AND PRACTICE SORTING OUT, BLOWING UP, COLORING IN OR JUST EDUCATING YOURSELF.


SPECIFIC AMC YEAR WIRING DIAGRAMS, HIGH RESOLUTION SCANS.
I'm Putting These Up Here So When YOU Look For Them, YOU Don't Have To Root Through The Entire Thread...

1972-73 LINKS
1972-73 Jeeps will have an 'Amps' light in the cluster and no 'Volt' gauge,
They also DO NOT have brake failure warning lights.
72-73 Engine Diagram
72-73 Chassis Diagram

---------------------------

1974 Though 86 have Volt Gauges on the dash, Brake Failure Warning Lights,
And will NOT have an 'Amps' light in the cluster.


1974-75 LINKS.
1974-75 Used a Delco SI alternator on I-6 engines, Motorola on V-8 engines,
Prestolite Ignition on I-6 and V-8 engines.
74-75 Engine Diagram
74-75 Key Page 1
74-75 Chassis Diagram
74-75 Key Page 2



1976-77 LINKS.
1976-77 Models use a Delco SI Alternator on I-6 engines, Motorcraft 'Square Ear' on V-8 engines,
Prestolite Ignition on I-6 and V-8 engines.
76-77 Engine Diagram
76-77 Key Page 1
76-77 Chassis Diagram
76-77 Key Page 2

1978 LINKS.
Delco SI Alternator on all engines, Ignition was Jeep/Motorcraft on all I-6 and V-8 engines.
78 Engine Diagram
78 Key Page 1
78 Chassis Diagram
78 Key Page 2

1979 LINKS.
Delco SI Alternator on all engines, Ignition was Jeep/Motorcraft on all I-6 and V-8 engines.
79 Engine Diagram
79 Key Page 1
79 Chassis Diagram
79 Key Page 2

1980-83 LINKS.
Delco SI Alternator on all engines, Ignition was Jeep/Motorcraft on all I-6 and V-8 engines.
80-83 Engine Diagram
80-83 Chassis Diagram
80-83 Tail Lights & Miscellaneous.

1984-86 LINKS. (SCANNING)
Delco SI Alternator on all engines, Ignition was Jeep/Motorcraft on all I-6 engines with a Engine Control Computer. No V-8 engines offered from the factory 84-86.
84-86 Page 1.
84-86 Page 2.
84-86 Page 3.
84-86 Page 4.

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Default Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-11-2014, 06:43 PM   #2
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THE ONE THING YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER ABOUT AMC/JEEP...

The facotry wiring harness you have was intended to live through 12 to 36 months of factory warranty.

After the factory warranty, you were money in the bank for the shop when you had issues over and over again.
When you got sick of that, you were money in the bank for the sales floor when you purchased a new vehicle that wasn't having problems... YET...

ALL MANUFACTURERS USED UNDERSIZED WIRING AND TERMINALS. Just a fact of life. Copper was EXPENSIVE, wiring harnesses were EXPENSIVE, and having undersized wiring saved MILLION every year.

A PROPER SIZE CONDUCTOR will supply your loads/devices much better, and therefor will last MUCH longer.

THIS IS THE BROWN & SHARP SCALE, AND IT'S DEAD ACCURATE FOR DC WIRING IN 100% DUTY CYCLE USE.
Intermittent use, or 'Duty Cycle' less that 100% might get away with smaller conductors, but most times it's a good idea to wire with 100% duty cycle in mind...



Have a question on wire size, simply look to see what that wire size will support in AMPS,
Have a question about something you know the AMP draw, look to see what wire gauges supports that amperage load.

Don't have ANY idea what your 'Load' is going to draw, buy an amp gauge and test it!

----------------------------------------------

The two biggest MISTAKES the factory made were,
1. No Dedicated 'Ground Path' wires. No direct ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR back to the battery.
Steel/cast iron is a HORRIBLE conductor of DC electrical current,
And steel/iron RUSTS like crazy.
You can't paint to stop corrosion since you will also stop the electrical conduction, so anything connected to steel/cast iron is a slow motion failure in the wiring... It's not a question of *IF*, it's a question of WHEN...

2. THE LARGE LOADS *SHOULD* GET THE LARGE CABLES OR WIRES.
The battery 'Ground Path' cable *SHOULD* go directly to the starter motor since the starter is the LARGEST LOAD that battery will ever see.

EVERY ELECTRON that vehicle uses comes from the alternator, and yet the alternator has to try to 'Ground' through aluminum corrosion on the case, brackets/bolts that are loose or rusty, through cast iron to the engine 'Ground' cable, another loose/rusty connection, then FINALLY get to the battery.

MOST LOW VOLTAGE OR LOW BATTERY COMPLAINTS, REPEATED ALTERNATOR FAILURE COMPLAINTS CAN BE TRACED DIRECTLY TO THE LACK OF A DIRECT 'GROUND PATH' TO THE BATTERY FROM THE ALTERNATOR.

This is simple to test for,
Simply run a resistance test from battery cable to alternator case, with engine turned OFF.

Then do it again with the engine running.
If the 'Resistance' goes up, your alternator is struggling for 'Ground Path' back to battery negative, and I bet 100 out of 100 of you without a dedicated 'Ground Path' wire will have 'Issues'...

-------------------

WIRE TERMINATION is a big deal that most people ignore...
Those 'Discount Sore' crimp terminals will get you home, but are a bad idea for long term use.
Since they aren't sealed, they are corrosion magnets and you can't see the corrosion since the wire is crimped inside open insulation.

The factory wasn't any better with a couple of exceptions, like the ignition harness (Ford, not AMC from '78 to '90)

More on terminals, insulation and ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION from corrosives later...

The other big deal about wire termination is a 'Correct' electrical connection has little to do with 'Crimping'...

Crimp is a MECHANICAL CONNECTION, was never interned to be a 'Proper' electrical connection when exposed to the elements.

SOLDER is the 'Correct' electrical connection.
NO ACID CORE! This isn't a plumbing project, ROSIN CORE ONLY!
Some dedicated electrical solders have a silver content in them, which is VERY good,
Silver is the best conductor of electricity you can ask for, and it comes to the surface of a soldered joint, providing even more environmental protection to the electrical connection.

The third step, which is way too often ignored once something 'Works'...
Is the actual ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.
Sealed connectors, Connectors full of dielectric grease to keep moisture/crud out, Heat Shrink tubing to seal/insulate the connection.

Soldering is a new skill, but most people pick it up really fast since it's a mechanical skill, and it makes a WORLD of difference in a wiring harness...
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Default Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-11-2014, 06:45 PM   #3
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WIRING IS YOUR FRIEND!...
ONCE you learn to deal with it on the correct terms..

TOOLS!
This is the GOOD NEWS for the guys that frequent the 'Craftsman' section of the store while the wife is 'Shopping',
And for the guys that only 'Browse' in a parts store!


When you switch from 'Mechanical' to 'Electrical', you will loose all common sense.
(ask me how I know that... )

You will use the same side cuts you have been lopping of small bolts with, cutting cotter keys, safety wire, ect. and then wonder why they aren't working for small gauge copper wire...

=====================================

GET SOME DEDICATED WIRING TOOLS, USE THEM FOR 'WIRING ONLY'.

'ALL IN ONE' tools SUCK ROCKS.
Don't bother, I've tried about all of them down though the years, and NONE of them work 'Correctly'.



I paid a TON of money for that 'CAT' tool at the bottom or I would have thrown it out long ago,
Now it's my 'Lend Out' and 'Trial' tool...
If it disappears, I won't miss it...

The two at the top are 'Pretty Good' with the little one in the middle being 'Exceptional' for what it does...

WIRE CUTTER.
The 'Problem' with wire cutters at the very front of the tool nose is the jaws get bent, and the cutters don't work well after that.

The 'Problem' with wire cutters between the handles is that's a Awkward place to put cutter/crimper since you have to drop a handle and try to hold the wire in place, get the handles around the wire, and line everything up to get a clean cut.

When a wire is in a bundle or back in a hole someplace, it's virtually impossible to get a good, clean, square cut or crimp.



CRIMPERS.
Same with crimpers between handles,
And when crimpers are BEHIND the pivot, you loose a lot of leverage,
Add the leverage loss with bad positioning, and it's a good way to have a crimp fail.

STRIPPERS.
Same as cutters and crimpers, when it's behind the pivot, between handles, it's VERY Awkward to use.

---------------------------------------------------

Like most everything 'Channel Lock' makes, this is an EXCELLENT design for Cutters/Crimpers, and I can't recommend these highly enough.
Mine see CONSTANT SERVICE, and this pair is about 10 or 12 years old, and still works GREAT.



I have a 'Shop' pair and a 'Trail' pair, this is the 'Trail' pair, and they have done a GREAT job on those larger crimp terminals we use a lot of on Jeeps.

-----------------------------------------

This is a GREAT combo for both small and large work on normal 'Crimp' connectors,



BUT,
If you are going to take on a Harness Project,
Then something like this for a Crimper is recommended,



It has replaceable jaws to do Ignition Wires, common crimp terminals, or even factory crimp (non-Insulated) terminals.

It has a ratchet built in, compound leverage so you don't have kill yourself on the handles, and it has positive stops that let you know when you have reached the correct crush on the connectors.

With the 'Correct' Jaw sets, you can EXACTLY REPRODUCE most 'Factory Crimps' with little effort.

-----------------------------------------------

THIS IS A 'FACTORY CRIMP' Tool, A 'Cheap' version from 'Radio Shack', and it will reproduce the factor crimps on connectors with 'Tails' that dig into both the wire and the insulation.



It's REALLY handy for a guy building a harness from scratch that DOES NOT want those big, ugly, failure prone crimps from the color coded insulated terminals everyone is so fond of...

These Jaws provide that 'Factory Crimp' that we are looking for,



----------------------------------------------

Last, but not Least, Are the
LARGE GAUGE CUTTING TOOLS...

When you get above about 10 Ga. wire, these tools will make you life SO MUCH EASIER!



The Cutting Jaws on these tools WILL NOT deflect, bend, flex, ect,
And they will give you a good, clean cut on COPPER CABLE used for winches, batteries, ect. where the cutters shown above are useless for this large gauge stuff...

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

IF TOOLS GET YOUR MOTOR RUNNING
And you want them to work AS ADVERTISED, THE FIRST TIME, EVERY TIME...
Then check out these sites!


Stripper,
http://www.channellock.com/Category.aspx?zcid=122

Crimper,
http://www.channellock.com/Category.aspx?zcid=125

Cable Cutter,
http://www.channellock.com/911-Cutting-Plier.aspx

Factory Crimp Tool,
Open Barrel Terminal Ratchet Crimp Tool

Crimpers, Selection,
Wire Crimping Tools | WiringProducts

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

TAKING TERMINALS APART...

Most people have no idea you can take most of the factory 'Jeep' CONNECTORS apart,
Replace the TERMINAL and the WIRE with new,

Reassemble the TERMINALS in the CONNECTOR, and have brand new WIRING and TERMINALS in the FACTORY CONNECTOR...

This is a 'CONNECTOR TOOL', and it will take most 'Factory' Connectors apart so you can get at the TERMINALS & WIRE...



It's not hard to get the fire wall Bulk Head connector terminals out, or the headlight connectors apart (shown below) and replace the terminals and wire with something that does the job better than the factory wiring...



And you get rid of all the POs 'Cut & Splice' work at the same time...

============================================

While we are on the subject of 'Terminals',
(Terminal = To Terminate The Wiring Run,
There will be 'Termination' of the wire on BOTH ends)

TERMINALS,

FACTORY CRIMP TERMINALS require a 'Factory Crimp Terminal Tool', like the one shown above, (Come with screw driver type handles also...)



You can't do 'Factory Crimp' terminals with one of those 'One Size Fits Nothing' tubing crimpers...
You must have a tool that bends the 'Tails' into the insulation and the wire conductor...

As you can see, you don't have to get 'Strip Happy' when doing factory style terminals on your wires.



FIRST CRIMP DONE. Tails go into the 'Arch' side of the crimper, and they get folded over back onto the connector.



Second Crimp Done, Factory Style Crimp Complete, this terminal is ready to get pushed back into the Factory Connector.



-----------------------------------------------------

WHEN YOU SEE 'SPLICE' IN A WIRING DIAGRAM...
IT'S PERFECTLY ACCEPTABLE TO HAVE THE 'SPLICE' AT THE TERMINAL INSTEAD IN THE MIDDLE OF THE WIRING RUN SOMEPLACE...




Strip a little extra insulation off the wires, and crimp them together in the connector.
VERY large wires WILL NOT fit in these little factory style crimp terminals,
But smaller wires crimp very nicely together and save you from having to break insulation in the middle of a wiring run for a 'Splice'...

=========================================


__________________
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Default Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-11-2014, 07:12 PM   #4
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WIRING TIPS, GADGETS, SHORT CUTS, AND OTHER INFORMATION IN THE 'GENERAL' CATEGORY.

Most Vehicles use the smallest possible wiring they can get away with, and this leads to trouble...

When you swap out 'Jeep' wiring it's ALWAYS a good idea to go one wire gauge size 'UP',
For instance,
If it has a 16 Ga. wire from the factory, use a 14 Ga. wire.
If it has a 14 Ga. wire from the factory, use a 12 Ga. wire.

This will give you extra capacity for things that are 'Old' and aren't working so well,
And it will give you capacity for 'Upgrades' later, like when we swap out blower motors, ignitions, ect.

When you start your wiring project, start at the Fire Wall Bulk Head Connector, or where ever the wiring ORIGINATES,
DO NOT start at the headlights and work backwards, you will only screw yourself in the long run.



Buy your wire on Rolls. 100 Feet of wire is NOT 'Too Much' if you are wiring your entire engine bay, and it's not going to be nearly enough if you are wiring the entire Jeep!

Buy up COLOR COMBINATIONS when you stumble onto them, having a Primary Color With a 'Trace' stripe is ALWAYS a good thing!

I never walk past odd ball colors in 12 or 14 Ga.,
AND,
I never walk past 'Common Colors' when they have a 'Trace Stripe' to help me with identification.

And I never walk past 10 Ga. with a 'Trace' stripe, no matter what the 'Trace' color is...

With the exception of under dash, I usually don't buy up anything smaller than 14 or 16 Ga.
That gets you right back to having too small of wire gauge really quickly...

==============================================

Some Examples,

10 Ga. 'RED', ... 'HOT' full time.

Starter Relay to Fuse block,
Starter Relay to Alternator 'BAT' terminal,
Starter Relay to Headlight Relays.
Starter Relay to Air Compressor Relay.
Starter Relay to Off Road Lights Relay.
Starter Relay to Electric Radiator Fan Relay.

10 Ga. 'RED' With a 'Stripe' (Red w/Trace)

Ignition Switch to Ignition. The Stripe (Trace) indicates that wire is 'Switched' and not full time 'Hot'

Headlights AFTER the relays. Relays are the 'Switch'.

Headlights AFTER the headlight switch if you don't have relays, again, the SWITCH is the 'Switch'...

Off Road Lights AFTER the power relay or switch to the lights.
Fan power AFTER the relay.

Different Stripe (Trace) colors can be used to identify which circuit you are looking at in the harness.
Green for Fan,
Blue for Lights,
White for Ignition, ect.

Same with smaller sizes of wire...

=============================================

TRICKS, TIPS, STUFF TO KEEP YOU STRAIGHT....

There are SEVERAL ways to color code your wires,
Or you can just get a label maker and label every wire for EXACTLY what it is and where it goes!

When I'm working with 'Bundles' that need to be separated, but are going back into a common bundle when I'm done,
I use the cheap color coded 'Zip Ties', one two or even three on the bundles will give you all the differentiation you need between which bundle is for the head lights, which bundle is for the ignition, which bundle is for whatever,
And when you get ready to bundle everything together, you can clip them off, or leave them in the larger bundle, doesn't matter.



I find these things REALLY HANDY when I'm working on Jeeps in particular.
The Grill Support Rods make a GREAT place to work from when you are sorting out a harness, and these things are removable, reusable, and easy to add or take wires out of when working.



If you have PERMANENT wires that might be confused with something else the same colors,
Then it's pretty easy to slip some bands of heat shrink over the wires and heat shrink them into place so they stay with the wires...

The bands shown are a little long, that's so they show up in the photographs easier...



This is PARTICULARLY HANDY for the wires at the starter relay, since there will be several,
This will tell you which Wire/Fusible Link feeds the Fuse Block, the Alternator, The Off Road Lights, the Fan Wiring, ect.

Combine a 'Zip Tie' with a Heat Shrink Band(s), and you really have a way to keep things straight.

=============================================

FUSIBLE LINKS.

FUSIBLE LINKS are used to supply NON CRITICAL/HIGH LOAD devices,
Especially when the load might shoot way up for a second or two, then level back off to 'Normal'.

The factory uses two on every Jeep, One for the feed to the fuse block,
One for the feed to the alternator.

I use them to feed relays for my off road lights, electric fan, air compressor, heavy load accessories that isn't the end of the world if they quit working.

Cycling loads, like a fan starting up can draw MUCH more amperage than you think, and by using a Fusible Link instead of a Set Amperage Fuse or Breaker,
The Fusible Link allows for a sudden current draw spike that levels out...



Fusible Links like the one pictured can be identified by the Plastic or Rubber 'Block' at the Ring Terminal where they connect to the battery cable side of the Starter Relay.

Fusible Links are a special blend of metals, Silver, Tin, Lead, ect.
And they are the Ultimate in 'Slow Blow' fuses.
They will allow for short term 'Over Load', like when the alternator is trying to charge a low battery,
Or when you have every electrical device on the vehicle fired up at once...

The Fusible Link can easily handle the Choke, Manifold Heater, Headlights, Blower Motor, Windshield Wipers and everything else fired up at once,
And the Fusible Link at the Starter Relay Battery Cable connection protects the Primary Wire to the Fuse Block & Head Lights from getting overloaded, rubbed through, melted or pinched and grounded out.

============================================

HARDWARE.



A Link to connector types and service.
Automotive Electrical Connectors

This is the 'Male' Side of most factory connectors.



REPLACEMENTS: STANDARD MOTOR PRODUCTS p/n CG8

Combined with the females, You can rebuild most factory connectors with new terminals and new wires...



REPLACEMENTS: STANDARD MOTOR PRODUCTS p/n CG7

And I NEVER walk by a factory connector when it's still in pretty good shape...



When you need that odd ball connector for something, It's REALLY nice to be able to build EXACTLY what you want!



+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

YOUR BULK HEAD CONNECTORS WILL BE PACKARD 59 CONNECTORS,
Slightly larger than the Packard 56 connectors shown above to better handle 10 Ga. wires.






Same 1/4" (0.250") blade width, but slightly longer contact surface area.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Another variation is the Packard 58 Female connector,
The rolled sides are there to cut through corrosion and make positive contact instead of the 'Constant Tension' type 'Spring' the Packard 56 & 59 Female terminals use.



The rolled sides of the connector are what we are used to seeing with Generic 'Barrel Crimp' connectors you are so used to seeing everywhere...
The 'Rolled Sides' sometimes make the connector a little 'Thick',
These sometimes won't fit in a standard Packard 56/59 female connector housing, so be aware of that.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

FUSE BLOCKS, INSERT BREAKERS.

For the guys wanting to add some extra Circuits and Current carrying capacity for lights, fans, air compressors, ect.
This makes a VERY handy way to add that capacity.



It's a 6 slot fuse block, dirt cheap and available anywhere.

Add some Insert Circuit breakers to the mix, instead of blade type fuses,



And you wind up with a 'Fuse Block' that has self resetting circuit breakers!
No more getting out in the mud, rain, ect. to fix that stupid 'In Line' fuse that came with your off road lights, air compressor, ect.



FOR GUYS WITH '72 and older Jeeps, this is a GREAT way to upgrade to a fuse block and breakers! Cheap, effective and easy to work with!


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Default Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-11-2014, 07:19 PM   #5
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SOME MORE OF THE GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION OF THINGS... DO YOU KNOW WHAT A 'DRIP LOOP' IS?...

EVERY HAD A RELAY EXPLAINED OR KNOW ABOUT SIMPLE/CHEAP FACTORY STYLE SEALED/WATERPROOF RELAYS?


[B]RELAYS.

RELAYS are used when you want to keep the wiring sizes reasonable.
There is no sense in running a highly loaded, 'HOT' 10 Ga. wire through the firewall,
Through a switch that isn't rated for anywhere near the amperage a 10 Ga. wire will conduct,
Then back out the firewall 'Hot' to what ever load might be on the other end.

When the switch is 'ON' the wire is hot both directions, and we all know what happens to wires stuck through holes in the fire wall...
Even if you use a 'Grommet' in the fire wall hole,
Eventually vibration and the weight of the wire will cut through the Grommet and then the wire insulation, and you have a MASSIVE short circuit!
(Excellent time to have a properly sized fuse or fusible link in the correct place!)

A RELAY lets you leave the Large Wires out in the engine bay,
Keep the short so they don't build a lot of resistance in the circuit,
And they keep you MUCH safer by NOT having them running in and out of the firewall,
Plus, a Relay can handle many times what a 'Switch' on the dash can, do it safely, and do it for YEARS without issues.

HOW A RELAY WORKS,



RELAY OPTIONS,



COMMON RELAY APPLICATIONS, WIRING DIAGRAMS,

You can control the "Low Current" switching to the relay, which is what you see above.
The Ignition switch controls the HEI relay low voltage trigger power,



While in this one, the Oil Pressure Switch activates the Low Current power to the Relay,
While the Manifold Temperature Switch controls the 'Ground' to the low voltage side of the Relay.
Oil pressure switch turns it 'On' any time the oil pressure is up,
The Manifold Temp Switch turns it 'Off' when it's not needed.



=================================================

ADVANCED RELAY WIRING.

Since you can control both the 'Activation' Low Current side (85 terminal) and the Low Current 'Ground' side of the activation circuit (86 terminal),
You can do some pretty tricky things with these little Relays!

Electric Fans are one case,
The thermostat controls the Low Current Power,
While you can run one small 'Ground' wire to the dash, run it though a switch, and be able turn the fan 'Off' when you get into deep water or mud which will slow the fan down and burn it up over time...

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

DIODES.

A DIODE is a 'One Way Gate Valve' for electricity.
Current will flow through one direction, but can't reverse.
This is handy to stop one circuit from 'Back Feeding' another circuit when they are hooked up to the same terminal.



A Diode in an Alternator 'Excite' Wire Application,
This replaces the 'Resistor' wire and keeps the 'Excite' terminal from 'Back-Feeding' the ignition system keeping the engine running after you turn the key switch 'Off'...



Diodes also keep your alternator producing in DC current the battery can use,
And not the 'AC' current the 'Alternating Generator' produces current in...
This is a Diode Rectifier from a Delco Remy 10 SI Alternator...



AC goes in, DC comes out, Diodes are wonderful little gadgets!

=================================================

JEEP HARNESSES ARE "SPLICE HAPPY"...



With a little planning, you can reduce those splices, and make your harness more SERVICE FUNCTIONAL at the same time.



Strip a little extra insulation off the wires, and crimp them together in the connector.
VERY large wires WILL NOT fit in these little factory style crimp terminals,
But smaller wires crimp very nicely together and save you from having to break insulation in the middle of a wiring run for a 'Splice'...

And we all know the sockets/terminals rust/corrode out.
(Some Dielectric Grease helps that situation a bunch, just squirt some in under the bulb when you change them out)

Your side fender marker light sockets look like this:



Your Front Marker/Turn looks like this:



Lenghten or shorten the wires on the DISPOSABLE parts, the lamps/sockets, and keep yoru harness from being hacked into a dozen places it doesn't need to cut into.

===============================================

DRIP LOOPS.

This is such a simple concept, it gets right past most people...

A 'DRIP LOOP' is nothing more than a few inches of extra wire, looped, so the loop is 'Down',
And installed just before the wiring 'Goes Into' something or another.



The idea is, harnesses are often mounted higher than the lights, accessories they service.
So any water that condenses or gets splashed on the wires runs right into the Light or Device, causing a lot of corrosion and other problems.

With the 'Drip Loop' in place, you have a little extra wire there for when you need to change terminal ends, bulb sockets, ect.
And the 'Drip Loop' keeps the water from the harness from running directly into your lights, radio, whatever.

An alternative to the 'Drip Loop'...



Believe it or not, the 'Zip Tie' actually helps get the water off the wire bundle faster and more efficiently...

==================================================

TRAILER CABLE.



This is a HEAVY insulation jacket around 16, 14 or 12 Ga. Wire,
You can get it with 4, 6 or 7 Wires commonly.
NAPA carries it, so do most big truck parts place, or you can order it online.

This stuff makes GREAT front to rear long wiring runs that are virtually indestructible.



+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

SOURCES.... PIECES, PARTS, SUPPLIES...

Reasonable Crimpers for 'OEM' style terminals...
14 To 24 Gauge Weather Pack Open Barrel Crimping Tool - The Repair Connector Store

PACKARD 56 MALE TERMINALS,
5 Pcs. http://www.repairconnector.com/produ...52d-5-Pcs.html

10 Pcs.Brass Split Tab Male Locking Terminal 10 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

25 Pcs.Brass Split Tab Male Locking Terminal 25 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

50 Pcs.Brass Split Tab Male Locking Terminal 50 Pcs - The Repair Connector Store

100 Pcs.http://www.repairconnector.com/produ...d-100-Pcs.html



PACKARD 56 FEMALE TERMINALS,
5 Pcs. Brass Female Lock Type Tab Connector 5 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

10 Pcs.Brass Female Lock Type Tab Connector 10 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

25 Pcs.Brass Female Lock Type Tab Connector 25 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

50 Pcs.Brass Female Lock Type Tab Connector 50 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

100 Pcs.Brass Female Lock Type Tab Connector 100 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

GENERIC PACKARD 56 Connector Housings,
Male 5 Pcs. Packard 56 Female Lock Type Tab Housing 5 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

Male 10 Pcs. Split Tab Quick Disconnect Male Housing Pack of 10 - The Repair Connector Store

Female 5 Pcs. Packard 56 Female Lock Type Tab Housing 5 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

Female 25 Pcs. Female Lock Type Tab Housing 25 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

Sets (Male & Female) 5 Sets Split Tab Quick Disconnect Set of 10 - The Repair Connector Store

PACKARD 58 FEMALE LOCKING CONNECTORS,
(Won't fit in some 'Packard 56' housings)
25 Pcs. Female Brass Open End Quick Connect Terminal - The Repair Connector Store

50 Pcs. http://www.repairconnector.com/produ...d-50-Pack.html

100 Pcs. Female Brass Open End Quick Connect Terminal 100 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

------


JEEP STEERING COLUMN KEY SWITCH REPAIR KIT- TILT WHEEL.
NON-ELECTRICAL.
http://www.repairconnector.com/produ...epair-Kit.html

--------------------------


NAIL HEAD CONNECTORS, Some Brake Light Switches, Reverse Light Switches, Sensors,

SINGLE, GM Single Wire Coolant Temperature Sender Connector - The Repair Connector Store

DOUBLE, Double Cavity Female Connector Housing Packard 56 Terminals - The Repair Connector Store

-----


HEAD LIGHT, H-4 HIGH HEAT CERAMIC CONNECTORS.
Water Boot Ceramic H-4 Connector,
http://www.repairconnector.com/produ...bber-Boot.html

Ceramic H-4 Headlight Connector-High Heat.
http://www.repairconnector.com/produ...Connector.html

H-D Plastic H-4 Connector.
Headlamp Connector H4 9003 Sealed Beam Repair - The Repair Connector Store

----

DIMMER SWTICH PLUG,
GM Ford Headlight Dimmer Switch Connector - The Repair Connector Store

----

STARTER RELAY STUD TO MALE SPADE,
10 Pcs. Brass Male .250 Tab With No.10 Mounting Hole Pack of 5 - The Repair Connector Store

STARTER RELAY PUSH ON BOOT CONNECTOR,
SENSOR PUSH ON BOOT CONNECTOR,

GM Ford Chrysler Universal Stud Socket Pigtail - The Repair Connector Store

-----

GM HEI Power & Tach Connector Set, Coil In Cap,
Set of GM HEI Distributor and Tachometer Repair Pigtail Connectors - The Repair Connector Store

GM HEI Power & Tach Connector Set, Remote E-Coil Coil,
GM HEI Ignition Coil Connector Set Black and Gray - The Repair Connector Store

-----

FORD COIL CONNECTORS.
Canister ('Horseshoe') Ford Ignition Coil Connector Harness - The Repair Connector Store

E-Core ('Square') Ford Ignition Coil Connector 1986 and Up - The Repair Connector Store

FORD DURASPARK CONNECTORS,
Power 2 Wire, [url]

Control 4 Wire, http://www.repairconnector.com/produ...ly-Models.html

----

DELCO ALTERNTOR,
10 SI Plug (2 wire) Alternator Repair Pigtail GM Internal Regulator - The Repair Connector Store

CS 'Oval' Plug, YOU NEED A RESISTOR BEFORE YOU CONVERT!
Delco CS130D Series Alternator Repair Connector 4 Terminal - The Repair Connector Store

CS 'Square' Plug, 4 Wire, YOU NEED A RESISTOR BEFORE YOU CONVERT! GM Alternator Internal Regulator 4 Wire Repair Pigtail - The Repair Connector Store

CS 'Square' Plug, 3 Wire, YOU NEED A RESISTOR BEFORE YOU CONVERT! GM Alternator Internal Regulator 3 Wire Connector 86 Thru 90 - The Repair Connector Store

SI to CS ADAPTER- NEEDS RESISTOR BEFORE YOU INSTALL!
GM SI Series Alternator To CS series Adaptor - The Repair Connector Store

----

ELECTRIC FUEL PUMPS,
FORD INERTA SWTICH CONNECTOR,
(For Electric Fuel Pump Applications)
Ford Inertia Fuel Shutoff Switch Connector - The Repair Connector Store

-------------------------------------------------------------

RELAYS.

5 Pin Relay And Socket,
Bosch Style 5 Pin Relay With Resistor and Connector - The Repair Connector Store

5 Pin SOCKET ONLY, Works with 4 pin relays...
Also works for 'Do It Yourself' Flashers.
Heavy Duty Flasher Relay Connector 5 Terminal - The Repair Connector Store

GM WATER PROOF RELAY SOCKET,
http://www.repairconnector.com/produ...placement.html

----

FUSE BLOCKS, BREAKERS...

ATO/ATC Fuse Terminal Connectors,
10 Pcs. Brass ATO Fuse Block Terminals 10 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

50 Pcs. Brass ATO Fuse Block Terminals 50 Pack - The Repair Connector Store

4 Fuse Add On Block,
4 Slot Fuse Block for ATO and ATC Blade Fuses With Brass Terminals - The Repair Connector Store


--------------------------------------

FUEL INJECTION...

GM Module 4 Pin Connector (GBRE)...
GM Distributor Module and Idle Air Control Repair Connector Pigtail - The Repair Connector Store

Works on GM Power/Coil terminal at module,
GM 2 Wire Coolant Temperature Sensor Connector - The Repair Connector Store

MAP Sensor,
MAP Sensor Connector Pigtail GM Cars Trucks - The Repair Connector Store

TPS Sensor,
Throttle Position Sensor Repair Pigtail Connector GM Cars and Trucks - The Repair Connector Store

Throttle Position Sensor Repair Pigtail Connector GM Cars and Trucks - The Repair Connector Store

IAC Plug,
IAC Idle Air Control Repair Connector GM Fuel Injection - The Repair Connector Store

O2,
Single Wire,
GM Single Wire O2 Sensor Repair Connector Pigtail - The Repair Connector Store

Throttle Body Injector Plug,
GM TBI Throttle Body Injector Repair Connector - The Repair Connector Store

----------------------------------------

WEATHER PROOF, WEATHER PACK CONNECTOR KITS,
160 Piece GM Weatherpack Terminal Kit With Tools - The Repair Connector Store

GM Weatherpack Terminal Kit 101 Terminals Housings and Seals With Storage Tray - The Repair Connector Store

GM Pak Con Terminal Repair Kit 46 Pieces With Case - The Repair Connector Store


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Default Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-12-2014, 11:49 AM   #6
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GETTING NEGATIVE!
(Ground Path back to battery to complete the circuit)

As explained above, the 'Ground Path' should be DIRECT to the battery Negative, and it should be an ELECTRIC CONDUCTOR, not relying on rusted bolts, rusted frame connection, corroded terminals that are 28+ years old, or any of the like.

'GROUND PATH' is much like the positive in reverse, smalls can feed into a larger, but not the other way around...

Same as with positive feeds, larger can feed smaller, But smaller can't feed larger.

Common Sense.

----------------------------------

Now, the EASIEST way to get solid, dedicated 'Ground Path' for your components is to have a custom NEGATIVE battery cable made.
These will be a little expensive, but you know EXACTLY what you are getting, and get EXACTLY what you want!

Mine are made form WELDING CABLE. Most of my heavy cables, positive and negative, are welding cable for several reasons...

1. The JOB of welding cable is to carry AMPERAGE (not 'Voltage')
So this makes them very close to perfect to start with...

2. FINE STRANDS carry more amperage than the larger stand 'Battery' cable you find most places. It's also MUCH easier to work with when you get into the larger sizes.

3. Welding cable is designed to carry amperage, so it's not 'Undersize' like most 'Battery' cables are, you actually GET what you pay for and it does the job.

4. INSULATION!
Welding cable insulation is DESIGNED to be dragged over sharp edges,
Deal with welding heat, slag, sparks, hot surfaces.
It's abrasion resistant since it's dragged over rocks, concrete floors, sharp edges, ect.
It's CHEMICAL RESISTANT, intended to be dragged across shop floors through chemicals, fuel, oil, general crud.

5. Where you find fine strand welding cable, you will also find heavy duty, HIGH AMPERAGE 'LUG' TERMINALS.
If you buy your cable and terminals, most places like 'NAPA' and welding shops will crimp your terminals on for free or very little extra.

This is a HUGE deal since you want to have CUSTOM TERMINAL ENDS on your 'Battery' cables!

6. Where you find welding cable and heavy duty high amperage lug terminals you will find the correct size/type of HEAT SHRINK TUBING to seal up your connection points!

Again, a HUGE deal to seal out environmental factors that cause corrosion INSIDE the insulation/terminals.

7. When your NEGATIVE cable is getting terminals crimped on,
Have an 8 ga. or 10 ga. wire crimped into the BATTERY TERMINAL END.
This needs to be about a foot long (1') at MINIMUM.
This is your connection to the Body 'Tub' and a potential 'Binding Post' location for the main harness, things like your ignition, engine block/heads.

The STARTER end (notice I didn't say 'Engine Block'? More on that in a minute)...
Should have a HEAVY LUG TERMINAL with a 3/8" hole in it.

While that heavy lug terminal is being crimped on, have at least TWO 8 ga. or 10 Ga. wires crimped into it.
These wires should be MUCH LONGER...

One will reach the alternator so that alternator gets a direct, negative battery terminal connection,

And the other can go to frame and/or 'Ground Path Binding Post', like a brass bolt to connect other dedicated 'Ground' wires to in later projects.
(like the 'Ground Path' wire that needs to go to rear of vehicle for tail lights and fuel tank sender, another to head lights/grill shell so the head/turn/park lights work correctly, ect.)

You will have a cable that will last longer than you will own the vehicle, and your grand kids probably won't have to replace it or have trouble with it...

-------------------------


BUYING FAT CABLES AND IGNORING THE TERMINALS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, CONTACT SURFACES, ECT. IS WASTING TIME AND MONEY...

The truth is, CORROSION NEVER SLEEPS, and if you don't pay attention to that fact, you won't have a long term successful working project.

FAT CABLES on inadequate terminals defeats the purpose. If the current passes FINE through the cable, that's only HALF the battle, you have to actually get that current INTO something,
AND back out of it back to the battery to do any 'WORK'!

So, with that in mind, a little battery cable, heavy wire tech...

----------------

CABLES DON'T FAIL, THE TERMINAL FAILS THE CABLE.
CABLES DON'T FAIL, THE INSULATION FAILS THE CABLE.

THIS CABLE SHOULD HAVE HANDLED 220 AMPS AT 100% DUTY CYCLE, 24 HOURS A DAY, 7 DAYS A WEEK.
When tested and pulled off it's work detail, it wouldn't keep an arc burning at 75 amps... And it was in service less than a year.



What happened here was the original builder of the cable didn't use a sealed lug terminal end, and moisture creeped into the conductor strands and started corroding the wire...



Bad for the welder I got it from, but GOOD FOR ME!
Since I know the difference between terminal ends, and I environmental seal my connections, this WILL NOT happen again!

See the 'Flattened Tubing' terminals on the left? End view second left?
Notice the air gap between top and bottom halfs of the flattened tubing?
HIGHWAY FOR MOISTURE!

If you use these, you MUST solder the INSIDE SHUT before you install a cable into them!



The terminals on the right are solid copper with lead or silver cadmium plating on the copper (Anti-Corrosion coating),
And they are BLIND inside, no highway for moisture, since there are no through holes in the cable/terminal connection...

These particular ones are from 'NAPA' and they aren't real cheap, but since you should only be doing this ONCE...
These are VERY heavy duty, heavy conductor means amperage transfer, so your starter/winches don't' have to starve for current.

-------------------------------

BUILDING A CABLE FOR CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY AND LONGEVITY.

THE THREE COMPONENTS TO A SUCCESSFUL TERMINAL ATTACHMENT.

1. CONTACT PATCH BETWEEN TERMINALS AND POSTS/PADS ON DEVICES.

Yup, this picture again,
Harder to see with my lousy photography, but notice how LITTLE copper surrounds the 'Eye' hole on the flattened tubing terminal on the left,
And how thin it is,



Compaired to the thick, wide contact patch on the terminals to the RIGHT.

Contact patch of LUG terminals should ALWAYS EXCEED THE CONTACT PATCH OF THE DEVICE.
No Exceptions.
The idea is for the CABLE/TERMINALS to deliver as much current as the device can take,

NOT to starve the device with a small contact patch, and thin terminal that can't transfer the current demanded.

----

2. MECHANIC CONNECTION, THE 'CRIMP'...
CRIMP IS NOT AN ELECTRICAL CONNECTION!

It might work as an electrical connection for some time, but eventually it WILL fail since there is no DIRECT, SOLID electrical connection that is sealed between cable and terminal... Keep that in mind...



NOTICE THE BATTERY TERMIAL SIZE HOLES?
These actually FIT the lead battery terminals...

NOTICE THE HARD CRIMP? This takes a LOT of pressure, and the better crimping tools are EXPENSIVE, so getting them done at the cable/welding shop for a single set of battery/starter/'Ground' cables is MUCH cheaper...

----

3. ELECTRICAL CONNECTION!
This is an actual ELECTRICAL SILVER BEARING SOLDER intended specifically for electrical contacts.
This makes a DIRECT connection, full length the socket inside the terminal to conduct more current,
AND it seals out moisture/corrosives...



Radio Shack will have it, so will other electrical supply places.

I usually 'Tin' the exposed wiring, this makes the cable a little stiff at the terminal end, but it protects the exposed naked copper with an added layer of corrosion resistance.

----

4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.
HEAT SHRINK WITH INTERNAL GLUE!
NO question about it! Best stuff out there!



COLOR CODING IS EASY HERE! Just 'Black' & 'Red' heat shrink,
And notice the glue coming out of the heat shrink sealing things up tight?!



This stuff takes low yield nuclear devices to get off once it's glued into place,
So plan out your connections, how many wires you want in the crimp BEFORE you crimp, solder and heat shrink...

----

5. THE TERMINALS ARE STILL EXPOSED!
And TRUST ME, that lead or silver cadmium plating isn't going to last long if you don't do any environmental sealing,
And you don't even want to know what it's going to do to the copper once it's gone!



HOSE YOUR TERMINALS DOWN WITH BATTERY TERMINAL PROTECTION SPRAY,
CLEAN OUT THE INSIDE,
CONNECT,
AND HOSE THEM DOWN AGAIN!

Those little wool felt pads soaked in battery acid neutralizer will also help keep the acid from 'Creeping' up out of the battery and attacking the terminals.

There is no way around the 'Creep' of acid, the battery cases simply can't seal to the terminals well enough to keep it from happening,
But those wool felt pads, recharged with baking soda from time to time when you do maintenance will keep it to a minimum and save your heavy terminals from a slow death...

That battery corrosion protection spray works equally as well on your starter relay posts and anywhere else you get corrosion problems...
It's sticky, nasty and gets everywhere, so it's not for EVERYTHING, but for this it's just about the best you can do.

These batteries were for a special project, the reason there are no 10 ga. wires out of the battery terminals anywhere,
But this shows you what it looks like when you are done...



----

SOME RANDOM PICTURES AND INFORMATION ON CABLE BUILDING...

This shows a bunch of terminals, difference in 'Vinyl' coated wire and rubberized insualtion on welding cable, and some size differences.

The 'RED' wire is 2 AWG (2 Ga.).
AWG stands for American Wire Gauge (Brown & Sharp scale standard),
Ga. is just an abbreviation of AWG.

The 'Black' is 00 on the Brown & Sharp scale, also expressed as 2/0 AWG or 2/0 Ga., means the same thing (2 zeros).



Notice the size difference between the two? Strand count is different also, since the vinyl insulated wire is 'Automotive' and the Black rubber is welding cable.

The crimpers shown are about $350, so it's not something you want to buy for ONE set of cables!
The cable cutters are about $30 and are REAL handy if you get into doing winch wiring, battery cables on a regular basis...

The big 'Square' looking connector is a high amperage connector commonly called an 'Anderson Connector',
Mostly used on heavy battery powered equipment like fork trucks, mine equipment, ice and floor resurfacers, and they are all over E-bay if you have interest,
Just get 'Anderson' brand terminals for them, the actual 'Anderson' brand is MUCH better material and is plated for corrosion protection and better contact patch at the terminal ends.

-----

ON THE LEFT, HIGH PERFORMANCE STARTER RELAY WITH COPPER TERMINALS,
On the right, the Discount 'Sore' version made in 'China' or somewhere with steel terminals.



The copper terminal version will transfer about 350 amps to the starter if your cables/terminals will transfer that much,

While the steel terminal version will only pass about 75 Amps without heating up and having problems.

THE BIGGEST ISSUE WITH ANY STARTER RELAY IS CONTACT PATCH.
Want to increase the contact patch of ANY heavy connection for cheap?

Pre '82 PENNIES are over 95% copper and increase contact patch when soldered onto the terminals that need increased contact patch!



I drill holes in them, clean them off in Vinegar so they will solder down, and do just that, solder them down!

Since pennies are BRONZE (mostly copper) they also resist corrosion, keep you from crushing the softer copper connectors when you tighten down and they increase contact patch size, they are about PERFECT...

You WILL have a hard time drilling them, they are TOUGH, much tougher than soft copper...

----

REMEMBER THOSE FLATTENED TUBING TERMINALS?
These were on a winch, and this is common...
Notice the HOLE in the end where they were crimped flat?
Notice the heat shrink was for decorative purposes only, no glue to seal things up?



This connection wasn't long for this world at full power, if those ALUMINUM terminals would last very long at all!
Who in their right minds ('China') would use thin walled ALUMINUM as a high current winch connector terminal?



Another picture of those brand new terminals from 'China'...
With moisture highways built into them from lousy crimping dies.

----

ANDERSON CONNECTORS, NOT EVERYONE NEEDS THEM, BUT THEY ARE VERY HANDY!

Ever want to jump start something without all the hassle?
How about a full battery power port up front of the vehicle for snow blade, winch, jumper cables, ect.



Just be careful how you run those battery cables to the connector, there isn't any way to put a 'Fuse' in full battery power cables...

---

Ever want to take 'Jump' power to something you can't drive up next to, like someone stuck parked in at 'Wally-World' that left the lights on in their fervor to go SHOPPING!...



I use Anderson connectors on my small farm equipment.
I drive up in the little jeep with a battery on an Anderson connector,
Pull a FULLY CHARGED battery out of the Jeep, plug it into the farm tractor or whatever, and away we go!
Stops battery thieves cold, no battery when they go to steal it,
And my tractor starts EVERY TIME since it always has a CHARGED BATTERY.



Makes for easy camping power, or lending a battery to someone broken down and you don't have to sit and wait for them to get going again...

Also, for you guys wanting 110 volt power camping or working on repairs,
Wire your 110 volt inverter with an Anderson connector and just plug it in when you need it.
Makes keeping that inverter out of the rain/mud/crud MUCH easier when you can just remove it from the work site and put it somewhere safe...

----

Anderson connectors start at about 50 amps and go up to about 350 amps.

LEFT is a 175 Amp Anderson Connector,



RIGHT is a 350 Amp Anderson Connector.

----

IDIOT PROOFING JUMPER CABLES!
You know you have done it, get the clamps together and make sparks/smoke!
We all have...



Just cutting one cable a little shorter than the other at the clamp ends will stop a bunch of this,
Not saying you won't throw them down like I do and get connected anyway, but it helps stop some of the things I do to myself...

----

IF YOU HAVE EXPOSED 'ANDERSON CONNECTORS' DO NOT FORGET THE ENVIRONMENTAL SEALING!

SAME RULES APPLY!
CRIMP, SOLDER, HEAT SHRINK ON CABLES,
THEN USE A BOOT ON THE BACK SIDE OF THE CONNECTOR...



If you are careful about how you cut the boot for wires to go through, you will get a VERY tight fit,
And that allows you to fill the boot/connector with Dielectric grease, completely eliminating the air space that moisture/corrosives collect.

The old rule apples here, "WHERE GREASE IS, MOISTURE AND CRUD CAN'T BE"



ONCE EVERYTHING IS SEALED UP, MOISTURE SIMPLY CAN NOT ENTER THE BACK SIDE OF THE CONNECTION,
AND IF YOU USE GREASE IN THE FRONT SIDE, AND PUT A BOOT ON IT,
MOISTURE/CORROSIVES CAN'T ENTER THE FRONT EITHER...




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Last edited by TeamRush; 11-12-2014 at 12:04 PM..

 

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Default Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-12-2014, 01:05 PM   #7
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A better solution for building battery cables, not that those above won't work, is to use marine grade battery cable from Ancor. It's thin strand copper like weld cable but it's also already tinned. It's covering is similar to that of a PVC and not rubber so it's still very flexible and it's gas, oil, abrasion, battery acid, and UV resistant. And price wise it's just slightly more per foot and available in a couple colors.
Wire and Cable | Ancor



For the terminals I like to use ones from Quick Cable in their Fusion Solder line.
Quick Cable: Fusion Solder Connectors
These don't require crimpers. They have a plug of solder inside. You strip the cable, push it into the end, and then heat the connector with a torch. It melts the solder and the wire slips into a molten puddle of solder to make a connection that is not only good electrically conductive wise, but also stronger than a crimped connection. In fact they claim 70% stronger. And you can still shrink tube them as the primary barrier. They offer straight, left and right angled, and "Tee's", as well as ring lugs and Andersen type lugs.

Here's a neat video of the product:
FusionŽ Solder Connectors by Quick Cable - YouTube

I found that West Marine has a decent price on the wire and has free shipping, plus they have other wire types that may come in handy, such as duplex black & red.
Marine Wire | Marine Electrical | West Marine

And McMaster-Carr carries the terminals.
McMaster-Carr

 

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Default Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-12-2014, 01:52 PM   #8
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I'm NOT dumping on you here...
There are a couple of ISSUES that aren't covered.

The first would be availability. With the internet, that's almost a moot point, but LOCALLY SOURCING is always better when you can hold it in your hand before you buy, and not all areas have big salt water/marine supply houses.

Buying from places like 'Air Spruce' or 'West Marine' is BRUTALLY EXPENSIVE.

----

Second, CHECK RESISTANCE AND AMP LOAD CAPACITY of that marine tinned wire before you jump to conclusions...

Tinned wire doesn't have the amp load capacity of the same size virgin copper wire, you would have to use larger cable for the same size amperage load.
This isn't a huge sticking point either since about anything from 4 Ga. in warmer climates to 2 Ga. in colder climates will probably get the Jeep running if it's going to start.

When you start talking 0°F for days or -20°F in the morning, all bets are off with ANY single battery with 'Smallish' or compromised cables,
We are talking EXTREMES here, where the marginal counts.

By tinning JUST the exposed part of the copper conductor, and using a SILVER based tinning agent, you don't reduce the amp carrying load by nearly as much as using 'Tinned' or 'Marine Tinned' wire.

-----------

My second issue is with the claims of those terminals.
There is NO WAY that just solder is 70% stronger than a good crimp AND solder.

Remember, VIRGIN copper will compress into a solid SLUG if you squeeze it hard enough, and the reason I use SOLID COPPER terminals is the cable and terminal become ONE PIECE,
Solder fills in the gaps where they didn't bond from the crimp...

SO, the mechanical compression alone is worth money to me...

When I winch REALLY HARD, or when I'm welding from my batteries,
I can render my solder LIQUID again from the heat...
What are you going to do when your solider only connection fails under those circumstances and the cable falls out of the connection for lack of mechanical crimp?

----

The second sticking point with those terminals is with the solder being in the terminal to start with...
Just melting the solder in the TERMINAL does NOT mean it will stick to the conductor.

The idea of soldering is to heat the terminal enough that it heats the conductor,
THEN add solder when both are warm enough for the solder to stick to both.
This is soldering 101, very basic.
Just warm enough for the solder to penetrate and CLIMB the strands of wire, tinning them in the process, and having a 100% adhesion to the conductor material,
And NOT just having a puddle in a hot connector, dunking a COLD wire into it and having to GUESS if the solder joint is 'Correct' or just wasting time/materials.

The THIRD issue would be the TYPE of solider they use.
There is a VERY specific reason I suggest actual electrical silver bearing solder in the first place.
The melting point/adhesion point is relatively low, but it's MUCH harder to liquify the second time, the melt point goes way up, which is good when you heavily load the cables/terminals.

The silver bearing electrical solder DOES NOT break down as badly with OVER HEATING the connection, first or second time, which gives you a MUCH better chance of getting that solid connection even if you are a novice and don't know you can overheat solder and cause damage to it.

Sliver bearing solder will cool SHINY, but fairly quickly turn 'Frosted' if you have overheated it,
While the common solders will 'White' over right away and sometimes not even stick to the joint at all if you overheat them...
If it's liquid and it's frosted/'White', then clean the joint out and start over, you screwed it up with common solder.

YOU CAN overheat silver bearing solder, but it's much more forgiving...

--------------

YUP! I've tried them, had them fail, don't recommend them anymore because they failed me.

Not everyone is going to work the electrical system as hard as I do,
I weld off my batteries, I winch really hard off my batteries,
I use my batteries for a large inverter so I have 110 Volts to work with in the 'Field', repairs or camp site, doing farm work, ect.

Everything I post is from PERSONAL EXPERIENCE,
And from actual testing to find something that worked better than what failed me at one time or another...

I don't believe ANY of the advertisements anymore,
I TEST EVERYTHING TO THE POINT OF FAILURE SO I KNOW EXACTLY WHAT IT WILL AND WON'T DO.

Did you notice everything I show is in actual assembly or use process?
No pictures from the 'Internet' for reference?
This is all actual stuff I build, test, burn up and rebuild stronger until it doesn't fail anymore.

And doing this as a profession on heavy industrial equipment for about 10 years gave me an insight into what can happen over time in an accelerated format.
(If you can think of it, the miners have screwed it up!)

Most people have no idea how fast sharp rock chunks will 'Test' abrasion resistance of insulation,
How fast a battery terminal will corrode to NOTHING or the battery clamp bolt will corrode away when you put it in a corrosive environment with no maintenance until it completely fails...
And run it 12 hours or more a day until it does fail...

Or how many amps you have to delver TO the starter on a bulldozer, then back from the starter to the battery... To get it started in -20°F weather...

You WILL do some SERIOUS failure analysis in a very short time span if you want to keep the engine electrics account in places like that!

Nothing like seeing 12 feet of 0000 (4/0 Ga.) wire burned completely off the terminals, but the terminals DID NOT fail trying to get that big brute started!

----

One other thing, the terminals I show come in straight, which I use the most of, and left/right in both positive and negative.
So do the 'Stud' terminals I show.

The pass through Stud terminal I show is straight only, since it's primary used for connecting batteries in a set or connecting one high load electrical device to another high load electrical device.

I use the straight through stud at my winch relays, then continue the cable out to an Anderson connector on the front of the Jeep.
Makes 'Stacking' heavy terminals unnecessary and removes a potential corrosion/failure point from the system.
VERY little resistance to those straight through connections vs. stacking terminals.
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Last edited by TeamRush; 11-12-2014 at 02:27 PM..

 

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Exclamation Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-12-2014, 04:45 PM   #9
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This should become a 'sticky'
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Default Re: Basic electrical wiring 101 

Old 11-12-2014, 06:03 PM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Lumpy Grits View Post
This should become a 'sticky'
LG
That would be up to the administrators if they think it's worthy and useful.

Just doing what I do and taking some pictures along the way. If you can use it that's fine, if it doesn't suit you that is OK too.
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